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Trump's Venezuela Moves Follow Long History Of Intervention In Latin America: NPR



U.S. soldiers direct traffic outside the residence of the Peruvian ambassador to Panama, right rear, in Panama City, on Jan. 9, 1990. In December 1

989, President George H.W. Bush sent thousands of troops to Panama to arrest the country's leader Manuel Noriega.
                
                
                    
                    John Gaps / AP
                    
                

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John Gaps / AP
        
    

U.S. soldiers direct traffic outside the residence of the Peruvian ambassador to Panama, right rear, in Panama City, on Jan. 9, 1990. In December 1989, President George H.W. Bush sent thousands of troops to Panama to arrest the country's leader Manuel Noriega.

John Gaps / AP
            
        

When President Trump spoke in Florida earlier this week, he issued a stern warning about Venezuela: Members of the armed forces who continue to support President Nicolás Maduro "will find no safe harbor, no easy exit and no way out," he said. said. "You will lose everything."

The White House says it wants a peaceful, multilateral approach to removing Maduro, but all the options are on the table – suggesting the possibility of military involvement. Unsuccessful to come to head this weekend, as members of Venezuela's US-backed opposition push to carry tons of humanitarian aid and to the country that Maduro's security forces have blocked. [1965] Venezuelan Defense Minister Vladimir Padrino delivers and speech surrounded by military but at the ministry building in Caracas on Tuesday. Padrino reiterated the military's "unrestricted obedience, subordination and loyalty" to President Nicolás Maduro.
                
                
                    
                    Yuri Cortez / AFP / Getty Images
                    
                

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Venezuelan Defense Minister Vladimir Padrino delivers a speech surrounded by military but at the ministry building in Caracas on Tuesday. Padrino reiterated the military's "unrestricted obedience, subordination and loyalty" to President Nicolás Maduro.

Yuri Cortez / AFP / Getty Images
            
        

U.S. Venezuelan forces who stand in the way and have described the aid as part of a strategy to complete the military to "disobey orders."

But even for some of Maduro's enemies, Washington's efforts to boost the Venezuelan leader raise concern because of the history of the US intervention in the region

It is "a long history that starts in Mexico," says Enrique Krauze, a noted Mexican story. The Mexican-American War, the brutal two-year conflict in the mid-19th century, ended with Mexico losing – or being said, being robbed of – half its territory.

"It would be hard to name a country where the United States didn't have an intervention, "he emphasizes.

Over 40 regime changes in a century

The United States participated, directly or indirectly, in Latin American regime change more than 40 times in the last century, according to historian John Coatsworth. This figure includes a number of failed missions like the 1961 Bay of Pigs assault in Cuba.

moves included its roles in ousting democratically elected governments in Guatemala in 1954, in Brazil a decade later, and in Chile in 1973. Chilean President Salvador Allende was deposited in a violent coup by CIA backed opponents, and the U.S. government long supported his replacement, the dictator Gen. Augusto Pinochet

Gen. Augusto Pinochet, waves to supporters from the balcony of his residence in Santiago, Chile, during the celebration of the 22nd anniversary of the 1973 military coup he led to the east of President Salvador Allende.
                
                
                    
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gene. Augusto Pinochet, waves to supporters from the balcony of his residence in Santiago, Chile, during the celebration of the 22nd anniversary of the 1973 military coup he headed to President Salvador Allende.

Martin Thomas / AFP / Getty Images
            
        

In addition to covert support for insurgencies, the U.S. has invaded its southern neighbors several times. For instance, the U.S. launched invasions of the Dominican Republic (1916), Grenada (1983) and Panama (1989).

The motives were varied and are often still debated. Writing in Harvard's ReVista magazine, Coatsworth says "two factors seem to have been crucial in decision makers towards intervention: domestic politics and global strategy." Much of the interference occurred while America was competing against the Soviet Union for influence around the world, as well as U.S. Leaders to find political support at home.

One bloody chapter that recently re-entered debate is the government's roles in Central America's civil war in the 1980s, including support for death squads in El Salvador and Contra guerrillas in Nicaragua. 19659008] The Trump administration's special envoy for Venezuela, Elliott Abrams, was convicted of withholding information about the Iran-Contra scandal from Congress, but later received a pardon from President George HW. Bush. Earlier this month, Congress members grabbed Abrams and questioned whether he would speak truthfully. Government allegedly had prior knowledge of an abortive coup against Venezuela's then-President Hugo Chavez, although President George W. Bush's administration denied any involvement. Abrams was a senior White House official at that time as well

Risky Balancing Act

Now, historian Krauze says the world wants to stop the humanitarian crisis he calls the "slow genocide" or the Venezuelan people. 19659008] Venezuela was once considered the richest country in Latin America and holds the world's largest oil reserves. Many world leaders, analysts and rights groups blame Maduro for enabling the country's spiraling problems, such as hyperinflation, crime, hunger and shortages of medicine and basic goods.

Venezuelan opposition demonstrators set up a barricade to block a street, during a protest against the government of President Nicolás Maduro, on the anniversary of the 1958 uprising that overthrew the country's military dictatorship, in Caracas on Jan. 23, 2019.
                
                
                    
                    Yuri Cortez / AFP / Getty Images
                    
                

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Yuri Cortez / AFP / Getty Images
        
    

Venezuelan opposition demonstrators set up barricade to block a street, during a protest against the government of President Nicolás Maduro, on the anniversary of the 1958 uprising that overthrew the country's military dictatorship, in Caracas on Jan. 23, 2019.

Yuri Cortez / AFP / Getty Images
            
        

The U.S. and more than 50 other world governments have issued statements recognizing congressional leader Juan Guaidó as Venezuela's rightful president, according to Prodavinci, an independent website for Venezuela analysis. The Maduro administration said last week it had enlisted about as many countries, including China and Russia, in its support. Most of Latin America backs Guaidó. Mexico's government says it is neutral and is calling for dialogue

Vice President Pence is due to travel to Colombia on Monday to meet with regional leaders and express the United States' unwavering support for interim President Juan Guaidó and highlight the Venezuelan people fight for democracy over dictatorship, "Pence's office said in a statement.

The United States is playing a difficult balancing act. It cannot be seen as leading the charge in Venezuela, says John Feeley, who resigned as U.S. ambassador to Panama last year, later citing differences with President Trump.

"Precisely the history of US intervention in Latin America is that it always seems to be worse than the original issue that mattered to American interests," he says.

Mexico's former Foreign Minister Jorge Castañeda warns the United States should not take too large a role in Maduro's sister. While Bolivia, Cuba, El Salvador and Nicaragua continue to back the embattled leader, Castañeda fears that a larger U.S. leadership role would rally more of Latin America's left to Maduro's defense.

"It's not so much that it should be leading from behind, it shouldn't be leading period. not more, "Castañeda says. Americanist

"The more you Americanize the situation, the worse the eventual result for the average Venezuelan," he wrote on his blog on Tuesday. "It badly undermines whatever government comes next and increases the chances of armed insurrection."

With Trump campaigning for re-election, Weeks assessed from the speech that U.S. domestic politics are a strong force behind the president's push to east Maduro.

Former Ambassador Feeley says he hopes Trump takes a diplomatic path. The repercussions of a U.S. Pat. intervention in Venezuela would undermine recent progress made in the region, he says.

"I think that the last 25 years of US Latin American diplomacy have actually gone a long way," he says, "through trade agreements, people-to -people diplomacy to pushing back against that legacy. "


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