As the Midwest hangs at below-zero temperatures in the brutal conflicting cold snap, both doctors and meteorologists warn that frostbite can be a risk within seconds.
In Detroit, Michigan, the temperature is expected to drop to -12 degrees, and with a wind chill some places may feel as cold as -60.
The humid temperatures are not only unpleasant, they are dangerous and put anyone outdoors in danger of frostbite.
When bare skin is exposed to extreme colds, the tissue freezes just under the skin as well, and the damage can be irreversible, even prospective costing sufferers fingers, toes or feet.
Ohio State University Lecturer in Operation Dr. J Kevin Bailey told Daily Mail Online how to recognize frostbite warning signs, take care of cold hands and feet and when to get to ER.
Frostbite can occur in minutes when the temperature drops during freezing. An expert explains what really happens to cold tissue and how to avoid dangerous exposures
WHAT IS FROSTBITE? An expert explores why cold kill tissue
Frostbite, Dr Bailey explains, "is really not that different from a burn."
The key factors in both burns and frostbite are how extreme the temperature is and how long you are exposed to it.
& # 39; If you try to go outside when it is five or ten under, take time often to cause damage that falls dramatically, & # 39; says Dr. Bailey.
& # 39; If you have exposed skin and there is a wind arrow, it is a matter of minutes. If you take a shovel that is bare metal, you can get frostbite within seconds. & # 39;
When frostbite continues, it can destroy cells, rather quickly by exploding them or starving them.
& # 39; At the most dramatic level, if you are thinking of putting a container of water in a freezer, and if you do not leave enough space to expand it, it will break. & # 39;
And that's what can ultimately be done with body tissue if you develop severe frostbite. When molecules freeze, they expand into a stiffer, more strictly organized, crystalline structure.
The volume of water is expanded by about nine percent when it freezes, and about two-thirds of the human body is water, so freezing temperatures can destroy tissues.
But just before the extreme set in which damage reaches deeper levels, it can reach the level of blood vessels, & # 39; says Dr. Bailey.
& # 39; When the blood cell lining becomes damaged, the blood tightens much more easily and it can block the blood flow to the hand or foot or finger.
& # 39; So you haven't killed all the cells, but they're starving for blood. & # 39;
Without blood, these cells do not become oxygen and without oxygen for too long, they will die.
FROST BITE CITYS AND HOW TO PLAY THEM EARLY
In its first phase, you can see frostbite in the redness of the tissue, typically by fingers or toes.
Not only are these often parts of our body, we leave vulnerable – like our faces and ears – but they are also the farthest from the heart, which pumps warming blood packed with essential oxygen.
In extreme cold, the body prioritizes the important organs, lowers them and does not work so hard to get blood for the less vital extremities.
You will also probably feel pain in part of your body that begins to become frostbite or even its precursor, frostnip.
& nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; & nbsp; impaired & nbsp; like diabetics who can't pay for their cabins; Don't notice it, says Dr. Bailey.
& # 39; When things start to fall, it is when you are at increased risk because you lose track and the ability to judge how much damage needs to be done. & # 39;
If you come in and see small blisters near your fingertips or toes, you can have mild frostbite.
But in the next step, you might see blisters further down, affecting the second set of bones. This can signal deeper and more serious injury and you should call your doctor. In sub-zero temperatures, it can happen even within minutes.
The horror stories most of us hear relate to severe frostbite. When this comes on, extremities can feel numbness, look blue and pale and even become harsh.
Dr Bailey says these scary cases are pretty much happening to people who find themselves stranded, homeless, or degraded, and underestimate the time they will be outside.
WHAT SHOULD YOU DO TO PREVENT FROSTBITE: COVER AND STORE OUTDOOR ADVENTURES SHORT
You can still get frostbite even through protective clothing, but the less your skin is exposed for the elements the better.
Dr Bailey says to remember vulnerable and vulnerable ears, which can also develop frostbite blisters as seen here
& # 39; no exposed skin and do not forget your face and ears, & # 39; says Dr. Bailey.
& # 39; Most people think of wearing gloves or mittens, but if you have them, they should also have insulated boots. & # 39;
And always, always choose gloves over gloves, says Dr. Bailey.
& # 39; Your fingers want to share heat so mittens are more effective in keeping warm in. & # 39;
For your face you can choose a balaclava or ski mask. Be careful to cover your nose, which is protruding and is more vulnerable.
Layers are also important for insulation, but don't let them become too limiting.
HOW TO TREAT FROSTBITE: WHAT TO DO HOME AND HOW DOCTORS CAN TREAT IT DIFFERENT
Taking care of frostbite is mostly a wait and defrost game.
But in some extreme circumstances, you may have to go to the hospital and knowing the distinction is crucial, says Dr. Bailey.
& # 39; If it's just the tip of the finger that blisters, you're probably okay, & # 39; he says.
& # 39; If you touch the burner & # 39; – then you say – & you have blisters all over your finger or involve your hand, then go to the ER. It's about how close the bladders are to the blueness that comes to the hand or foot itself, rather than just walks. & # 39;
An anti-inflammatory, such as Tylenol or ibuprofen, helps with the pain, and water can help you thwart if your frostbite has not moved beyond your fingertips.
But be careful not to go too far in the opposite temperature direction.
Dr. Bailey says to be sure to drive you frozen bits under cool or lukewarm water, not hot.
& # 39; You won't have an emotional hand and scare it, & # 39; he says.
Generally, superficial frostbite causes blisters on the fingertips, but the darkening of the tissue indicates that the cold has penetrated more deeply  In the hospital they use bath-temperature water – at about 102 degrees – to treat frostbite patients, but you can go cooler if it feels better.
Frostbite of these levels should heal within 10 days or a few weeks.
For those who develop more severe frostbite, doctors may have dry blisters. In worst case scenarios, they must be vigilant for the gangrene, the death of the tissue.
To try to save severely frostbite extremities or limbs, dr. Bailey and his team first woven with the gentle bath and then applied a new treatment.
& # 39; We provide blood-propagating medicine, the same as we would use for someone who has had a heart attack or stroke, & # 39; explains Dr. Bailey.
Improving blood flow must help prevent cell death, but they just have to wait and see how much life returns to the foot or hand. If it goes black and hard, it must be amputated.
But these cases are rare and some simple precautions should keep you safe – even at temperatures below zero.
Remember, therefore, not to touch a cold metal bucket, stay inside when you can and make sure to travel with someone else and let people know where you come from and need to minimize the risk of you being caught out in the cold .