Scientists have made a surprising discovery about how strange bacteria can live in soil and sediment. The bacteria do so, the researchers determined, through a seamless biological structure before seen in nature ̵
Scientists had believed Geobacter sulfurreducens conducted electricity through common, hair-like appendages called pili. Instead, a researcher at the University of Virginia School of Medicine and his collaborators has determined that the bacteria transmit electricity through immaculately ordered fibers made of entirely different protein. These proteins surround a core of metal-containing molecules, much like an electric cord containing metal wires. This "nanowire," however, is 100,000 times narrower than the width of a human hair.
This tiny-but-structure, the researchers believe, could be tremendously useful for everything from harnessing the power of bioenergy to cleaning up pollution to create biological sensors. It could actually serve as the bridge between electronics and living cells.
"There are all kinds of implanted medical devices that are connected to tissue, like pacemakers with wires, and this could lead to applications where you have miniature devices that are actually connected by these protein filaments, "said UVA's Edward H. Egelman, Ph.D. "We can now imagine the miniaturization of many electronic devices generated by bacteria, which is pretty amazing."
Small but Effective
Geobacter bacteria play important roles in the soil, including facilitating mineral turnover and even cleaning up radioactive waste. They survive in environments without oxygen, and use nanowires to rid themselves of excess electrons in what can be considered their equivalent to breathing. These nanowires have fascinated scientists, but it is only now that researchers at UVA, Yale and the University of California, have been able to determine how G. sulfurreducens use these organic wires to transmit electricity. The technology [to understand nanowires] ] Until about five years ago, when advances in cryo-electron microscopy allowed high resolution, "said Egelman, or UVA's Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics. "We have one of these instruments here at UVA, and, therefore, the ability to actually understand the atomic level of the structure of these filaments. … So this is just one of the many mysteries that we have now been able to solve using this technology, like the virus that can survive in boiling acid, and there will be others. "Bacterial nanowire mystery solved ” title=”Nanowires project from bacteria to facilitate transfer of electrons Credit: Yale University”/>