World No. 1 ran through the first set, but lost the second in an exciting tie-break before regaining her composure to win the decision.
Barty is the first Australian woman to win the singles title since her idol Evonne Goolagong Cawley won it in 1980.
Pliskova, who only competed in his second grand slam final, took too long to settle into the match and got paid for his early form despite improving in the more competitive second and third sets.
“I really have to thank every single person in this stadium. You have made my dream so special, thank you so much,” Barty said during his interview in court.
“It was a unique match right from the start, I knew I had to bring my very best level. I was really proud of myself with the way I was able to reset and just keep going.”
For the first time since 1977, both women made their Wimbledon final debuts, but one handled it much better than the other.
Pliskova started the match very nervous and Barty, with the superior experience, never really needed to shift out of first gear during the opening exchange.
The Czech player’s serve is usually her most potent weapon, but even that left her in the early stages – it took her until the third game before she even won a point.
The first set was over in a blur and there was apparently no change at the start of the second where Barty broke up again.
But when the match apparently slipped away from Pliskova, she finally found her rhythm and broke back to make it 3-3.
It was like another player had taken to the field where Pliskova slammed aces and pushed Barty to her limits.
But the Australian looked just like his opponent’s effort and had the chance to earn for the championship, only to spread the opportunity and lose in the resulting tie-break.
The deciding set was more like the final that many had expected, with both players demanding the very best out of each other.
Barty’s class eventually shone through as she recovered from a disappointing second set to win the decision in a more comfortable way.
“She played an incredible tournament and incredible match today,” said an emotional Pliskova during his interview on the field.
“It was not easy to close the second set, I struggled to make it difficult for her, but I think she really played very well, so congratulations to her.”
It’s been an incredible journey for her first Wimbledon title for Barty.
After having a great junior career, she took a break from tennis in 2014 and later said that the sport had become “robot” and that she was a “victim of my own success.”
She turned to cricket and got a contract as an all-round player with the Brisbane Heat back in Australia before returning to tennis in 2016.
She went on to win her first grand slam at the French Open in 2019 before taking another break from the sport during the Covid-19 pandemic.